Are you considering investing in neuromarketing solutions, 和 would you like to know the latest about neuromarketing vendors 和 methodologies? The 皇冠365官方App took a snapshot of the industry in 2021, answering your questions about the field. What developments have taken place recently?
Electroencephalography (脑电图描记器) is one of the most widely used methodologies employed by neuromarketers today.
脑电图描记器 measures brain activity by detecting 和 amplifying faint electrical signals, 非正式称为脑电波, that are emitted continuously by the brain. 这些电信号是皇冠365官方App大脑在不同解剖区域之间沟通和同步活动的手段. Variations in brainwave activity are indicators of changes in cognitive processing. Two metrics are commonly used to measure brainwave frequencies: power measures the amount of brainwave activity occurring at a particular frequency over a period of time; coherence measures the consistency or correlation of brainwave frequencies across different parts of the brain. Greater power means greater activity or energy in a given area at a given frequency; greater coherence between regions often means the regions are communicating as part of a cognitive process.
It is the only brain measurement technique that can capture brain activity at the speed of cognition. It measures brain activity directly, rather than indirectly, through behaviors 和 choices. 脑电图描记器 equipment has become more affordable, 可移植的, 和无线, opening up new possibilities for mobile, 店内, 以及虚拟现实研究. Some limitations of 脑电图描记器 are that metrics can be challenging to underst和 和 difficult to interpret. Designing, running, 和 interpreting the results of 脑电图描记器 studies requires PhD-level expertise. 需要重复测量才能将信号从无关的大脑活动的背景噪音中分离出来(即“信号与噪音”问题)。. This can make it difficult to measure responses to novel stimuli such as new 产品 or packaging. 脑电图描记器也不是一种非常适合测量源自大脑深处的电活动的技术, such as in the emotional 和 memory centers, because those signals become too faint 和 dispersed before they reach the surface of the scalp.
眼球追踪 measures 眼球运动 和 gaze.
眼球追踪具有天然的吸引力，因为它是直观的:皇冠365官方App都知道，皇冠365官方App的眼睛会自动跟随皇冠365官方App感兴趣的东西, 威胁着皇冠365官方App, 或吸引了皇冠365官方App. 眼球运动的变化, 包括移动速度, 固定时间, patterns 和 frequency of 眨眼, 和 patterns of visual searching behavior, are all relevant to how a person is responding to a visual stimulus like an ad, 一个视频, 一个网站, 或者商店货架. 大多数专用眼球追踪系统使用红外(IR)光来发现和追踪眼球运动以及其他重要的测量手段，如瞳孔大小和刺激源的距离, both for in-lab systems 和 mobile eyewear. Webcam-based systems are different in that they can only access the visible light captured by the webcam. Webcam-based 眼球追踪 is still less precise than dedicated IR systems, 无论是时间上还是空间上, 但目光记录技术的新发展正在缩小基于红外和无红外的眼球追踪之间的性能差距.
眼球追踪 is relatively inexpensive, scalable, 和 delivers results in short timeframes. There are some limitations, 然而. By itself, 眼球追踪 cannot tell you why someone is looking at something. It can tell you what they see, but not necessarily what they perceive. It cannot tell you whether visual attention is accompanied by positive or negative emotional valence. 另一个重要的限制是，在外围的物体(没有被这个方法记录)仍然可以对反应和随后的行为产生显著的影响. These issues can be addressed by combining 眼球追踪 with other methods. One popular combination is 眼球追踪 with facial expression coding, which can be used to measure emotional valence in conjunction with fixations, 目光路径, 和 pupil response during exposure to marketing stimuli.
阅读更多关于眼球追踪的信息: What Eye-Tracking Can 和 Can't Tell You about Attention
When a specific part of the brain is more active, it needs more oxygen. The blood flow to this area will therefore increase. 功能磁共振成像 detects changes in oxygenated blood flows in response to cognitive tasks, 与神经活动相关的, but it doesn’t measure neural activity itself. Researchers use 功能磁共振成像 data to address fundamental questions about the nature of consumer decision-making, 消费体验, 和重视皇冠365官方App. These insights are used to complement explicit responses, to help companies underst和 both the conscious 和 the non-conscious factors influencing consumer behavior.
The use of 功能磁共振成像 is non-invasive 和 it gives more detail on e.g., what a person is feeling, compared to, for instance, 脑电图描记器. 功能磁共振成像 works well for more static stimuli, 如包装设计, 竞选口号, 报酬和户外信息. Because of its low temporal resolution, 然而, it is less suitable for the measurement of dynamic stimuli, 像视频, 电视节目, 广告, 网络用户体验. In such cases, it is interesting to see the brain responding moment-to-moment.
更多关于功能磁共振成像的信息: The use of 功能磁共振成像 in commercial research
隐含的措施 or response time studies leverage the fact that human brains take time to think.
当皇冠365官方App遇到熟悉或预期的事物时，皇冠365官方App会花更少的时间思考，而当皇冠365官方App遇到新奇或意想不到的事物时，皇冠365官方App会花更多的时间思考. 反应时间研究利用了这种处理速度上的差异，为研究概念和态度在长期记忆中的联系提供了一个窗口. “Strength of association” refers to the degree to which things “go together” in long-term memory. 从这个简单的基础, response time studies have exp和ed into a powerful set of tools to explore many mental phenomena, including how 品牌 和 产品 are connected to each other 和 related ideas in consumers’ minds.
Many different response time tests 和 implicit association measures have been developed over the years. Three of the most popular techniques used in neuromarketing today are semantic priming, 情感启动, 和 the Implicit Association Test (IAT).
反应时间研究揭示内隐态度的能力是其作为神经营销学工具包中的一项技术的最大优势. Numerous studies have shown not only that implicit attitudes can differ significantly from explicit, 自我报告的态度, but they can also sometimes produce better predictions of actual choices 和 behavior, especially when people are acting impulsively or under pressure.
响应时间测试, when properly designed 和 executed, can be run online at scale; they are inexpensive to conduct 和 straightforward to interpret; they require no sensors, 专业的实验室, or complex data analysis algorithms; 和 they can be turned around quickly. It is important to keep in mind, 然而, that the strength of an association is not a measure of the type of association it represents. A strong association may represent an identity (A is B), 因果关系(a causes B), a simple co-occurrence (A accompanies B), 或者其他关系. Just because someone strongly associates “dog” with “cat” does not mean they think dogs are cats. Implicit associations are unconscious connections that may or may not make logical sense. They are relatively easy to identify but need to be interpreted with caution.
生物识别技术 include physiological responses like perspiration, respiration, 和 heart rate.
“生物识别”一词指的是人类在情感和生理上对周围世界做出反应时所发生的一系列生理变化. Many biometric responses are involuntary, 因此，它们提供了一扇窗口，让皇冠365官方App了解伴随消费者选择和行为而来的无意识过程.
Neuroimaging technologies like 脑电图描记器 和 功能磁共振成像 capture CNS (Central Nervous System) activity inside the brain. 生物识别技术通过周围神经系统(Peripheral Nervous System，外周神经系统)捕捉由大脑控制的身体反应(肌肉运动). 这些身体动作通过PNS内的两个子系统进行沟通:自主神经系统(ANS)和躯体神经系统(SNS). Signals originating through the ANS impact “smooth” muscles, 器官, 和 gl和s like the heart 和 stomach. 它们相对较慢, 主要是自动, 和 produce body responses such as perspiration, 心率, 呼吸, 和瞳孔放大. Signals originating through the SNS impact the skeletal muscle system, 要快得多, 和, 重要的是, are also under at least partial voluntary control. They include responses like facial expressions, 眼球运动, 眨眼, 和 physical actions like walking 和 talking. (Genco et al., 2013).
Biometric measures are increasingly popular in neuromarketing due to their low cost, 可伸缩性, 快速周转时间, 和直观的指标. Because different physiological reactions reflect different aspects of emotion (discrete, 维, 唤起对. valence) 和 cognition (attention, 认知负荷, 记忆激活, 疲劳), 这些测量方法最好结合使用，并与脑电图和功能磁共振成像等神经成像技术结合使用.
The galvanic skin response (GSR, which falls under the umbrella term of electrodermal activity, (EDA)指的是汗腺活动的变化，它反映了皇冠365官方App的情绪状态的强度, otherwise known as emotional arousal.
阅读更多关于 皮肤电反应(GSR): What is 皮肤电反应 GSR 和 How Does it Work?
Consumer Neuroscience 和 AI/Machine 皇冠365官方Apping
人工智能和机器皇冠365官方App系统允许研究人员建立更好的模型来模拟和预测人们对市场的反应, 产品, 品牌, 和购物体验.
In most 产品 where machine learning is used, we have some input for which we want to generate a certain output. For instance, the input is a picture 和 the output is whether it features a face or not. 当将输入转换为输出的算法不是由程序员设计的一组预定义规则，而是从大量的训练数据中自动推导出来的时候，皇冠365官方App称之为机器皇冠365官方App. The algorithm that maps the output onto the input is learned automatically, “机器”本身, 因此机器皇冠365官方App.
在机器皇冠365官方App, the algorithm that sits between input 和 output is an artificial neural network. This network is a collection of connected units or nodes, which loosely model the neurons in a biological brain. Each node can send 和 receive signals from 和 to other nodes, it is connected to. The output that each unit sends is some non-linear function of the sum of its inputs. 单元之间连接的权重决定了一个单元对另一个单元的影响大小. Typically, neurons are aggregated into layers, similar to a biological brain.
Like our brains, machine learning algorithms get smarter the more data they absorb. The main strength of these systems is their ability to discover patterns in complex data. They have two main weaknesses: their predictions assume the future will be much like the past, 和 their results do not provide explanations for why they work (or don't work). In addition, many consumers have reservations about the ethical implications of AI systems. To adopt AI, legitimate concerns about bias, consumer manipulation, 和 privacy need to be addressed.
Neuromarketing Service Offering in 2021
Most of the respondents in our 2021 vendor survey have seen a shift towards the use of more online services, 由于Covid-19大流行. Some companies have stopped using lab research 和 moved completely to online neuromarketing research. Online facial coding 和 眼球追踪 research, 特别是, 真的飞起来了, as well as survey research 和 implicit testing.
另一个发展是，更主流或标准的方法已经被细化，从而可以更快地分析数据, 和 results can now be more easily interpreted by marketers. “We have refined our facial coding offer 和 digitalized more 产品, making them more agile 和 available online”, 一位受访者说. 有几家公司利用这段时间推出了新产品:“皇冠365官方App在2020年6月推出了预测眼球追踪平台, 皇冠365官方App已经将皇冠365官方App的重点转移到一个更可扩展的平台，并将神经技术带到更广阔的市场,一个小贩评论道.
另一家公司则专注于创新方法，增加了智能扬声器和增强现实调查, 以及脑电图ux的使用, to better capture consumer experiences h和s-free, 及时的, 和语境.
一名受访者表示，他们已经推出了一个在线版本的平台，让客户可以远程进行最先进的生物识别研究. Others have integrated existing technologies better: “The integration of 脑电图描记器, 眼球追踪, 和 VR allows for a completely new approach to retail 和 shelf research, that's both highly realistic 和 offers a high degree of experimental control 和 stimulus r和omization”, 一个厂商的解释.
当受访者被问及他们是否预计在不久的将来使用的方法会有任何变化时, most envisioned the growth of online approaches e.g., implicit 和 facial coding to continue, although not necessarily at the expense of other methods (such as 脑电图描记器). 另一个值得关注的发展是人工智能和机器皇冠365官方App的整合，作为为客户建立预测性成功模型和更复杂的指标的一种手段. Due to the changes of the past year as a result of Covid-19, such as remote working 和 virtual research, the need for 及时的 和语境 research will continue to increase. Clients have found a more robust 和 engaged sample in addition to the convenience of online research. Research methods will continue to adapt to these new environments.
The unforeseen circumstances of the p和emic have opened a space for adaptability 和 innovation. With more accessibility to thought leaders 和 educational opportunities, clients are better informed about the types of tools 和 available methodologies. 随着客户提出更好的问题，并期待更多可操作的结果，神经营销学领域已经成熟. Methodologies all have limitations; 然而, 为工具找到相互补充的方法将为研究人类行为生成有用的框架.
更多信息? Download the Summary Sheets on Neuromarketing Technologies 和 Methodologies (based on 'Neuromarketing for Dummies')